What is Non Cooperation Movement ?
The non-cooperation movement was the first mass based, non violent. This was all India political movement which was launched under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi in the background of Lucknow Pact, Anti Rowlatt Act, Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy, The Great Economic Crisis faced by the Indian people during the World War – I and after it and The Khilafat Movement.
The Calcutta Congress passed the historical resolution which was ratified by Nagpur session of Indian National Congress ( December 1920 ).
The demands of Non- Cooperation Movement were : –
1. The grant of “Swaraj” to India.
2. Redressal of the Punjab Wrongs.
3. Conceding of Khilafat demand or issue.
4. Programme of Non – Cooperation movement.
5. Surrender of titles, honorary officials, resignation from nominated seats of the central and provincial councils.
6. Refusal to attend official functions.
7. Triple boycott of government schools and colleges, British courts and elections to the central and provincial councils ( which was to be held under Government Of india Act 1919 ).
8. Boycott of foreign goods.
9. Refusal to join any government jobs – both civil and military.
Constructive Programme of INC : –
1. To set up arbitration boards to take up the cases in place of government courts.
2. Founding of national school and college, promotion of swadeshi, popularisation of Charkha and Khadi, raising of national volunteer force.
Later on two more programmes were included : –
3. To raise 1 crore Rs to build a memorial for Tilak. This fund was known as “Tilak Fund”.
4. To introduce two million charkhas in Indian homes.
Launching & Progress of the movement : –
Gandhiji launched the Non-Cooperation movement formally on August 1, 1920. Before the Non-Cooperation resolution by the Calcutta Congress, launching of this movement proved to be tragic because on the same day Bal Gangadhar Tilak died. Formally the NC government was launched after Calcutta and more particularly the Nagpur session of INC. The movement was very short-lived and was suspended after the Chauri-Chaura incident on February 12, 1922.
Suspension of Non – Cooperation movement : –
Movement began with a tragedy and was suspended under the cloud of tragedy. In December 1921, Gandhiji served an ultimatum to the British that if the British government did not end its repressive policies against the movement, the INC would launch a mass Civil Disobedience Movement. Before Gandhiji could launch the Civil Disobedience movement, a tragic incident broke out in Chauri-Chaura.
In Chauri-Chaura, an angry mob attacked a local police station and put it on fire. Gandhiji was shocked by this incident. He then convened a meeting of the Congress Working Committee which decided to suspend it on february 12, 1922. The movement thus was suspended and could never be revised.
Reaction Of Suspension of the movement : –
The whole nation received the news with a terrible shock because when the movement had gained great momentum and when thousands of people had been put behind bars that it was suddenly suspended. The people got terribly demoralized. Pt. Jawahar Lal Nehru had written that Gandhiji decided to punish the whole nation for the sins of a small group of people of a small and insignificant town.
The bridge of the Hindu unity was dismantled forever and the precarious Hindu-Muslim unity achieved at Lucknow was also broken forever. It was after suspension of Non – Cooperation movement that the communal riots broke out in different parts of the country which became the order of the day till the partition was forced upon the country.
Critical Appraisal of Non Cooperation Movement : –
It was the first mass based all India political movement which was launched under the leadership of Gandhiji, which evoked great response from thousands of students boycotting government schools and colleges. Bonfires of foreign goods were lit all over the country. Several eminent lawyers like M. L. Nehru, C.R.Das gave up their legal practices and people made tremendous sacrifices.
It was through this movement that India came on a road to Swaraj. The INC became a force to react with and it was after this movement it went from strength to strength.
It showed the determination of the people to attain freedom and challenge colonial rule. For the students boycotting government schools, national educational institutes were founded as Kashi Vidyapeeth, Varanasi University, Jamia Milia University, Delhi University.
Failure of Non Cooperation Movement : –
1. None of the demands for which the movement had been launched could be fulfilled including Punjab Wrongs.
2. The Non-Cooperation movement failed to achieve any of its objectives. The dismantling of Hindu-Muslim unity, the outbreak of communal riots in India. After suspension of this movement including the second Moplah uprising in Kerala were the tragic consequences.
3. After the suspension of the movement no organised movement could be launched for 5 years. Till the launch of Civil Disobedience Movement, thousands of people who had been arrested in connection with the movement and immense sacrifices felt greatly disillusioned and shocked.
After suspension of this movement : –
Ali brothers denounced Gandhi as cheat, fraud, criminal worst than a Muslim thief, rapist and killer, he has stabbed at the back of Indian Muslims. INC made a blunder by supporting the Khilafat Movement.